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“And vet E say unto vou, that eben Solomon, in all his glory, fas not arrayed like one of these”









PuatTe I. Drnprosium DEVoNIANUM.

II. Denprosium Arnswortuu.

III. DenprRogium Nostxe.

IV. Masprvauiia Verrcutt.


VI. Carrieya CHocoEnsis.

VII. Carrteya Mossra.

VIII. Carrreya Loppicesu.

IX. Lara AutTuMNALIs.

X. Lauia Dayeana.

XI. PHatanopsis STUARTIANA. XII. Puatanopsis ScuittEerRIANa. XII. Onciprum BarKkern.

XIV. CaLANTHE Verrcui.


XVI. OponrocLossum Rorziu ALpun. XVII. Oponrocrossum TriuMPHANs. XVIII. OponrocLossum ALEXANDR&.

XIX. Lycaste Aromatica.

XX. VANDA Suavis.

XXI. Cymprprum Hooxkerranum. XXII. Cyprirpepium Niveum. XXII. Cyprieepium Haynatpranum. XXIV. Cypripepium SpIceRIANUM.


PAGE INTRODUCTION c g : é A ‘i . a 5 - 7 OUTLINE OF THE OrcuID FLORA é 3 f : R : 9 HyMN to THE Flowers. . : : ; : 6 : eweeatn DernpRobIuM (Life-giving Tree) 9 6 : 5 : pee) DENDROBIUM DEVONIANUM . : : : : ; : : 3 DENDROBIUM AINSWoRTUID . ; 2 : : ; ; : See DeENpvRosium Nosite . : : 5 ; 5 : : 3 gO Maspevatiia. (or Don Fosé Masdevall.) . 5 j : a2 MASpEVALLIA VEITcHtt ; : ; ; SoG CartLrya. (For William Cattley.) . : : : ¢ : 20 CaTTLeYA TRIANA ' F : : : 6 : 6 . Qo Dy CaTTLEYA CHOCOENSIS . 3 : : 4 : : 9 0 3%) CaTTLeyA Mossi : : ¢ 6 : : : eo CatrLeyA Loppicesi . 6 : : 6 é : : : 5 3X6) Laxia (Roman Lady’s Name) . ; : : a 9 ; 5) AS LaiiaA AUTUMNALIS . : . : 6 6 : ' Q a. 3) Laiia Dayeana . : : 0 : : : : : . 6 Alii PuaLanopsis (Butterfly Plant) . : : 0 6 : 6 a Gl PHALNOPSIS STUARTIANA . . aye : 6 : ; ae 4S PHALANOPSIS SCHILLERIANA ae tics j : : : : 5 6 Oncipium (Zuberculous appearance) . 6 c : ¢ 3 5 5@ OncipiumM BARKERID. c : : ; : : : 0 5 Rit CALANTHE (Beautiful flower). 0 : 5 9 : . 5 88

CALANTHE VEITCH . é . : 6 : : : 3 a Ba


PAGE /ERIDES (Azr plant) . . a 5 6 : : 0 : 6 Si ERIDES QUINQUEVULNERUM : ; 6 ; : ; 5 ge OponrociLossuMm (Zooth and ipa : ; ; . : 5 (5) OpontToGLossuM RoEziir ALBUM : j : : : g {Oi ODONTOGLOSSUM TRIUMPHANS . : 2 : : : : ae O3 OponToGLossuM ALEXANDRE. : : ; : 5 : a 6 Lycaste (A Lady's Name) 6 6 5 : : : : OS LycasTE AROMATICA . é ; j : ; : é ¢ > 69 Vanpa (Sacred Misletoe) . 5 6 : , ; 5 : ee 2 VANDA SUAVIS e : 5 5 : : 5 8 9 5. WB Cympipium (Boat-shaped) . : : : 5 : 3 . sR Cympiprum HookERIANUM . : : 6 : : : 9 a Ufe) Cypripepium (Venus’ Slipper) . ; c ; : : : 5 he) CypRIPEDIUM NIvEUM 0 c : 3 : 0 ¢ 0 oh CypRIPEDIUM HAYNALDIANUM : : 0 : : : . - 84

CYPRIPEDIUM SPICERIANUM . : 0 0 6 0 0 0 6 8h


Tuts royal plant-family of ancient Grecian name, —‘ooyug whose structure and leading characteristics the following pages are designed to illustrate, is part of the world’s flora until re- cently little known in this country. The singularly curious fea- tures of many varieties, and the exquisite beauty or fragrance of others, have rapidly and widely, since their introduction from abroad, attracted the admiration of students in natural history, and of all lovers of flowers.

One of our most enthusiastic and thoroughly capable flor- ists justly says:. “Orchids are the éife of the floral kingdom. The flowers are, without exception, the most curious and beautiful in nature. Their qualities, taken separately, would give eminence to a race of plants; the singularity of their shapes, their delicate and aromatic odors, and the richness and variety of their colors,— all being different from anything we elsewhere meet.”

This weird and wonderful plant has its natural habitat chiefly in the tropics, the most beautiful of the species coming from the East Indies; but the orchidaceze are found in all warm and moist latitudes, and in nearly all localities, except such as are extremely dry and cold. A few varieties are found as far north even as the Canadas.


Scientific research has as yet discovered but few econom- ical or practical uses of the orchid. A single variety, indeed, produces the vanilla of commerce, a highly valuable flavoring substance. The tubers of several species furnish a mucilagi- nous substance, named by the Turks sa/ef, which is nutritious and is used for food. A number of varieties give choice perfumes; and a very few plants are understood to have a recognized place in the Materia Medica. But we need not doubt that future investi- gations will in due time furnish proofs of other uses for this

strangely beautiful family of the world’s flora.

The Author gratefully acknowledges the kindness of Major Alexander H. Davis, of Syracuse, N. Y., and the kindness of Frederick L. Ames, Esq., of North Easton, Mass. (as well as that of their very capable and obliging florist gardeners, Messrs. H. Youell and W. Robinson), for free access to their splendid collections of plants and flowers.

H.-S. M:

The designs of the artist have been engraved on stone and reproduced in colors by the Hatch Lithographic Company of New York.


Tuis great family is divided into two general classes, of which the first live upon trunks and branches of trees, on blocks of dry wood, and even on stones, receiving nourishment from the air. These are named Afiphytes, a Greek word signifying plants which grow upon other plants, but do not penetrate their substance or absorb their juices. The other general class, fewer in number, is named ¢errestrial, and comprises such as grow in and upon the soil, like vegetation generally.

These two classes are distributed into seven orders or tribes,

namely :—

tst Tribe. MALaxE@: i. e. Softness or Waxy Softness.

2 ace EpIpbENDRE&: Something growing wpon Trees.

BY slain VANDEZ: Sanskrit for Mistletoe, or Tree Orchid.

Ain. OpHRE#: The Hyebrows; referring to the ancient fash- ion of painting the eyebrows.

iS thy ce ARETHUSE&: From the name of a nymph ‘of Diana, fabled to have been transformed into a fountain.

Ghia Neorre£: A Bird’s Nest. :

Pith CyPRIPEDEH: Venus’s Slipper.

The most beautiful and valued of the whole great family of orchids are found in the first, second, third, and seventh tribes;

and nearly all these are Epiphytes, excepting the Cypripedez. 9


“The flowers of all orchids” (we quote now from the last and very recent issue of the Encyclopaedia Britannica”), though extremely diverse within certain limits, and superficially very different from those of other monocotyledons, are all formed upon one common plan, which is only a modification of that observable in such flowers as the narcissus or snowdrop.

“The conformation of those flowers consists, essentially, in the presence of a six-parted perianth, the three outer segments of which correspond to a calyx, and the three inner ones to a corolla. These segments spring, apparently, from the top of the ovary; the real explanation, however, being that the end of the flower- stalk or thalamus, as it grows, becomes dilated into a sort of cup or tube closely enclosing and adhering to the ovary, so that the latter organ appears to be beneath the perianth, instead of above it, as in a lily.

“Within the perianth, and springing from its sides, are six stamens, whose anthers contain pollen grains. These stamens encircle a style which is the upward continuation of the ovary, and which shows at its free end traces of the three originally sepa- rate but now blended carpels of which the ovary consists.

“A main distinguishing feature is, that one of the inner pieces of the perianth becomes in course of its growth much larger than the rest, and usually in texture, color, and Out has a distinct name, —/p or labellum.”



*Neath cloistered boughs, each floral bell that swingeth And tolls its perfume on the passing air, Makes Sabbath in the fields, and ever ringeth

A call to prayer.

There as in solitude and shade, I wander Through the green aisles, or, stretched upon the sod, Awed by the silence, reverently ponder

The ways of God.

Your voiceless lips, O Flowers, are living preachers, Each cup a pulpit, and each leaf a book, Supplying to my fancy numerous teachers

From loneliest nook.

“Thou wert not, Solomon! in all thy glory,

Arrayed” the lilies cry, “in robes like ours;”

How vain your grandeur! Ah, how transitory Are human flowers!

Posthumous glories! angel-like collection! Upraised from seed or bulb interred in earth, Ye are to me a type of resurrection,

And second birth.

Were I, O God, in churchless lands remaining,

Far from all voice of teachers or divines,

My soul would find, in flowers of thy ordaining, Priests, sermons, shrines!

Horace SMITH.



DENDROBIUM. (Lifegiving Tree.)

Tus name represents a very large variety in the first of the seven tribes of Orchids. They originated chiefly in the East Indies. They grow upon trees ‘and even rocks; that is, they are epiphytes. Some of the species are deciduous, having the peculiarity of dropping their leaves before blossoming, while others are accounted evergreens. They are among the most beautiful of the orchidacee; by newly discovered varieties they are every year increasing, and there is hardly one that is not worth growing, though some in blossom are not showy.

This family is understood to have been discovered and named by a German botanist, Schwartz; he having first and specially noticed the flowers hanging from and even overspread- ing trees in some forests of the Orient. Hence he sought to affix a name that would express the idea of life-bearing or Lz/e- giving Tree.

The name Dendrobium is from the Greek 4évdgor, a tree, and Biog, life; and the word has here the Latin termination, as is common in botanical uses. The names given to flowers have generally (as is apparent in the following pages) been designed to point out some particular feature of the plant, or were given on account of some economical use, or out of respect to the discov-

erer, or in compliment to an eminent patron.








THE adjunct Devonianum, marking this variety,— which is represented by Plate No. I,—is affixed as a compliment to the sixth Duke of Devonshire, who was a generous promoter of botanical science, and in whose famous gardens at Chatsworth the new plant first blossomed in 1840. This variety is under- stood to have been originally found by Mr. John Gibson, —who was the Duke's collector of foreign plants,— hanging from trees in dense forests of the Khasya Hills, India, which are 4,500 feet above the sea level.

Immediately before the appearance of bud or blossom, this plant much resembles a group of dried sticks; for a singularity is, that, having made its annual growth, the leaves drop off; the stalks appear for a brief space to be dead, and then start out and unfold exceedingly attractive blossoms. No one unacquainted with it would conceive the possibility of luxuriance and beauty growing out of such unsightly and hopeless stalks.

This variety blossoms in summer, and is a free bearer; for the author has seen in the orchid house of Mr. Ames, of North

Easton, Mass., a single plant bearing seventy-five flowers.

What prodigies can power divine perform More grand than it produces year by year, And all in sight of inattentive man? Familiar with th’ effect we slight the cause,


And, in the constancy of Nature’s course,

The regular return of genial months,

And renovation of a faded world,

See, not to wonder at.....

All we behold is miracle; but, seen

So duly, all is miracle in vain.

Where now the vital energy that moved,

While summer was, the pure and subtile lymph Through th’ imperceptible meandering veins

Of leaf and flower? It sleeps; and th’ icy touch Of unprolific winter has impressed

A cold stagnation on th’ intestine tide.

But let the months go round, a few short months, And all shall be restored. These naked shoots, Barren as lances, among which the wind

Makes wintry music, sighing as it goes,

Shall put their graceful foliage on again,

And, more aspiring, and with ampler spread, Shall boast new charms, and more than they have lost. Then each, in its peculiar honors clad,

Shall publish even to the distant eye

Its family and tribe... ..

The beauties of the wilderness are His

That makes so gay the solitary place,

Where no eye sees them. And the fairer forms That cultivation glories in are His.

Me sets the bright procession on its way,

And marshals all the order of the year;

He marks the bounds which winter may not pass, And blunts its pointed fury; in its case,

Russet and rude, folds up the tender germ, Uninjured with inimitable arts 5

And, ere one flowery season fades and dies, Designs the blooming wonders of the next.


ts fo 1G O 3 WY a a wat , AG ia RZ



THIS variety—represented in Plate No. II, —is a_ hybrid, a cross between D. xobsle and D. heterocarpum, and is considered one of the choicest and most desirable of the family. It was grown by Mr. Mitchell, gardener for Dr. Ainsworth, of Manchester, England, whose name the plant bears.

Our drawing could present but a small part of the whole thrifty growth of this variety, or its multiplied buds and blossoms, its stalks being two feet in length. Some of them present a metallic appearance also, not easily represented by colors.

At the Boston Horticultural Fair, in 1883, Mr. Robinson, gardener for F. L. Ames, Esq., took the highest prize for the finest specimen of this variety of Dendrobe seen or known in this country. It was indeed a noble specimen; but one needs to see the whole plant to appreciate its real beauty.

It is not easy to speak truly and fully of this royal plant family without appearing to use the language of exaggeration. Baron Humboldt, the great naturalist, relates that “such is their number and variety in valleys of the Peruvian Andes, that the entire life of an artist would be too short to delineate all the magnificent forms adorning those deep recesses.”

Credible travellers in Brazil report that the “monkeys swing, leap, climb, and chatter in the tops of trees, surrounded by thou- sands of twisting and drooping orchids, breaking out into xolden yellows to be dreamed of, into wonderful chocolates and

the most delicate lilacs.”


One can readily believe that a sight of the magnificent growths, the rare fruits and endlessly variegated orchid beauties overspreading all, in semi-tropical forests and valleys, must give a sense of reality to the picture fancied by the great English

poet as the Eden of our first parents :—

Thus was this place A happy rural seat of various view, Groves whose rich trees wept odorous gums and balm; Others whose fruit, burnished with golden rind, Hung amiable, Hesperian fables true, If true, here only, and of delicious taste: Betwixt them lawns, or level downs, and flocks Grazing the tender herb, were interposed; Or palmy hillock or the flowery lap Of some irriguous valley spread her store, Flowers of all hue, and without thorn the rose.

More of these orchid plants are already known than exist of all the different grasses. What has brought to pass the extraordinary diversity in this grand flora is not only a curious question, but, since the botanical experiments and researches of our own days,—especially those of the eminent English natural- ist, Mr. Darwin,—a subject of fascinating interest. We may safely say, no doubt, that very great changes of beautiful color, fragrance, and curious form, as well as still multiplying varieties of orchids, have resulted largely from three causes:

1. From climatic changes through which this earth has passed during unknown thousands of ages. It will not be ques- tioned that the present Arctic region once enjoyed semi-tropical warmth, at least; while what are now the temperate latitudes an- ciently and long endured, more or less, the rigors of a glacial age.


2. Great changes in the structure and coloring of flowers have been wrought by what may be termed chance and artificial hybridizing.

3. Very many curious and even grotesque modifications have been effected by cross-fertilization through the agency of insects. This topic will receive further consideration on subsequent pages, and more appropriately when we come to speak of the Cypripedium.

Until within a few years the general public—and scholars even supposed that trees and shrubs and flowers had been always from their creation the same; that daisies had ever been what daisies now are; that the crocus, primrose, dandelion, etc, had never been but what they are to-day. Truer views of nature are accepted now. The luscious strawberry can be ‘traced back to an insignificant cinquefoil as its ancient parent. Our plum is only a cultivated variety of the blackthorn. All learned men agree that, after our. earth began to be clothed with vegetation, plants were few, and flowers very small and incon- spicuous, consisting probably of a single stamen and a single pistil each.

Not now to go further back than the well-known history of the Amaryllids, these may be termed tubular lilies. The Iris family are a similar but rather more advanced species; and a small further growth or progress, might bring us to the Gla- diolus. We now quote verbatim from the admirable little work of Grant Allen, entitled “Flowers and their Pedigree.”

“From these the step is not great to the orchids, undoubt- edly the highest of all the trinary flowers, with the triple arrange-

ment almost entirely obscured, and with the most extraordinary


varieties for the adaptation to fertilization by bees or by humming- birds, in the most marvellous fashions. Alike by their inferior ovary, their bilateral shape, their single stamen, their remarkable forms, their brilliant colors, and their occasional mimicry of insect life, the orchids show themselves to be by far the highest of the trinary flowers, if not indeed of the entire vegetable world.”


ec ve as


Sis shaes.,






Tus variety, characterized by mame as noble, grandly fine, represented by Plate No. III.,— is a native of Assam, in China, a useful plant for winter decoration, of easy culture, and valuable, too, for color and fragrance. Its numerous and jointed stalks, often two feet long, when thrifty, blossom at nearly every joint. It blooms in winter and spring.

“In the extensive genus of Dendrobium,’ says an American florist, Mr. Henderson, “we are presented with some truly magnificent epiphytes, which, regarded either for their singular manner of growing, graceful or grotesque habits, and large, hard- some, richly-scented flowers, are perhaps unsurpassed in the entire range of vegetable forms. And they may be divided into two sections, the pseudo-bulbous class and those with tall, bulbous stems. Many of the former are extremely small compared with the splendid flowers they produce, and, from this circumstance, are usually grown on blocks of wood or cork, lest the young shoots receive injury from excessive moisture.

“Those belonging to the other section are again divisible. The upright-growing, such as D. nobile, make the best appearance when cultivated in pots and trained by the aid of stakes. Plants of pendant and trailing habit (like the D. macranthum) should be grown in baskets suspended from the roof of the house.

«The genus Dendrobium consists of two hundred varieties, of

which eighty and more are naturalized in our greenhouses, and

some of them are grown to an extent that warrants their use as


cut flowers. [This was all true some years since.] The D. nobdile blossoms freely during the winter, and is one of the very few orchids that will grow and blossom quite well in ordinary sitting-rooms.” The hand that gives the angels wings, And plants the forests by its power, O’er mountain, vale, and champaign flings The seed of every herb and flower; Nor forests stand nor angels fly More at God’s will, more in his eye, Than the green blade strikes down its root, Expands its bloom, and yields its fruit.

How camest thou hither? From what soil, Where those that went before thee grew, Exempt from suffering, care and toil; Clad by the sunbeams, fed with dew? Tell me on what strange spot of ground Thy rock-borne kindred yet are found, And I the carrier-dove will be To bring them wondrous news of thee. MonTGomery.

We insert here an appropriate extract from a delightful book by the Rev. W. C. Gannett, entitled “A Vear of Miracle.”

“What would summer be without the flowers? And yet sum- mer with flowers is a modern improvement. For ages and ages, through far the greater part of its life, thus far, a flowerless earth has turned its sombre face up to the sun. It had not learned to smile. Even the summers of the ages to which we owe our coal-beds had no flowers, no fruit-blossoms, no grass, and of course no bees and no song-birds, in them! All the plants,

wise men say, were like our ferns, or club-mosses, or meadow-


horsetails, only ‘there were giants in those days, —or else like our cone-bearing trees, all reproducing in the secret way ferns still know, or the quiet Way pine-cones have. Not till long ages afterward did the Junes bear blossoms.

“Thinking of that, we can hardly say the ‘good old times. We thank Heaven that the birds and flowers came before us. Indeed the earth had to be ripe for them before it could be ripe for us. So here we are to-day; and the whole land, all summer through, laughs for us in grass and flowers,—that peal begin- ning in the anemones and violets, rising into roses, and ending in the golden rod and asters. Great tribes of beings have been already born, and others are on their way to life, for peopling this planet with color and beauty.

“Flowers and art! flowers and poetry: we must now add, the flowers and science; for in the flowers a name is written, and to-day that name is found to have been written from the beginning in all things that are. All things grow. The flower is type of the universe, and the lily of the field is sowing afresh for us the problems of creation.”

We linger at the vigil With him who bent the knee To watch the old-time lilies In distant Galilee; And still the worship deepens, And quickens into new, As, brightening down the ages, God’s secret thrilleth through. The flower-horizons open, The blossom vaster shows, We hear the wide world’s echo, See how the lily grows!


MASDEVALLIA.— For Don Fose Masdevall.

Tuis genus, belonging to the second, tribe, has its title from a Spanish botanist, whose name_is. printed, above. It includes an extensive variety of epiphytal orchids, natives chiefly, of the Cor- dilleras or mountain ranges of South America. These were but poorly represented in orchid collections till about fifteen years ago, when Messrs. James Veitch & Son, of England, obtained living specimens from Peru. Since that time, new varieties have steadily continued to be imported, notwithstanding many difficulties con- nected with the removal of these small bulbless plants from cool, moist homes in their native highlands, through warm valleys, and across the seas.

Leaves in the wild specimens exceed a foot in length, produc- ing a raceme (a form of inflorescence very common in orchids) of six or eight flowers, which issue, one above another, from sheathing bracts. The flowers have a short cup, with spreading sepals; all with long yellow tails, the broader portions of them closely dotted over with fine reddish-brown spots; petals and column being white, the lip yellow.

M. Roezl, an eminent orchidist, states that he found, in the mountains near Ocana, the Masdevallia growing by hundreds of thousands amid low shrubs.

nen ee *







THIS variety, represented by Plate No. IV,

named in compli- ment to the eminent English florists, is a nati

Ve-0f Perr aitibloss soms in February and March. The Specimen here presented is

from the greenhouse of Mr. Ames, of North Easton, is a good example of those classed as “cool orchids,” lower temperature than most other species.

Mass., and

requiring a

These flowers are not so much chosen by amateurs (or for com- panionship in these pages), on account of especial beauty, as for their strangely curious or grotesque appearance. Some of the Masdevallia take on resemblances of the spider, or look much like long-legged insects of different kinds. The object of their collec- tion in orchid-houses seems to have been to present a distinct phase of the singular and odd features to be occasionally found in this great and wonderful family.

Since these pages were begun, however, we are informed that a new impulse has been given and a deep interest, recently mani- fested among orchid-growers, in this species, as a result of the importation and growth of Masdevallias of uncommon attractive- ness and beauty.

There is a lesson in each flower,

A story in each stream and bower; On every herb on which you tread Are written words which, rightly read, Will lead you from earth’s fragrant soa To hope —to holiness to God.


Such true poetry in prose as the subjoined extract, though not specially related to the Masdevallia,—may justly have place anywhere in the literature of plants and flowers :

“These last words, linking leaves, limbs, and blossoms, touch the deepest flower-secret that has thus far been discovered. School- boys know it now; but the wisest men were just knowing enough a century ago to guess it. It is the secret that botanists call met- amorphosis:’ the secret that each and every organ of the flower is but a transformed leaf; that bud-scale and bract, sepal and petal, stamen and pistil, back to the new bud-scale, in spite of all the difference of their forms, and all their varied tints,—are but suc- cessive leaf transfigurations. Economic Nature gets her new effects, not by selecting new themes, but by playing variations on the old themes. When she would make a blossom on an apple- tree, or on a pasture weed, she only shortens and alters what would else have been a common leafy branch.

“But not content with such transfiguration, the mother of all beauty takes up the separate organs, and tenderly carries out her variations on each one. She bears fixed laws in mind, and never really forgets her arithmetic,—the rules of twos and threes and fours and fives; but by multiplying parts, by dividing parts, by joining them at this place on their edges, then on that; by enlarg- ing some, and making others smaller; by their complete abortion sometimes; by moulding horns and cups; by unfurling wings, by hanging bells, by ravelling fringes out,— by all sorts of dainty devices of sculpture, she makes the myriad distinct species of miracles that men stare at untiringly, as the flowers of spring. It is rare luck to turn up from the soil of some classic land frag- ments of a marble statue of old beauty. But Nature flings her


carvings everywhere, each one complete and fresh and perfect for its niche; and sucha joy, that, were it the only one of its race, it would draw people into pilgrimages for its worship.” Rev. W.



CATTLEYA.— For William Cattley.

THIS very numerous genus in the second tribe of orchids, bears the name of an eminent English florist. And quite a number of varieties of this same species or genus, have received, in compliment, the names of other cultivators and patrons. It is an epiphyte, originating in Brazil and Mexico. One European collection is reported to contain six hundred different varieties of the Cattleya.

“What the rose and lily are among garden flowers,” says Mr. Henderson, “the Cattleya is among orchids, pre-eminently beautiful. Not a specimen but possesses strong claims on the florist’s attention, for its delicate loveliness, and the rich and vivid coloring of its large flowers. Being natives of the tem- perate parts of South America, their cultivation better succeeds in a lower temperature than is necessary for a majority of plants of the same order. They grow on billets of wood, in pots or baskets. They are increased by division of the roots. The flowers present all shades of rose, rosy-lilac, crimson, carmine, and ruby-purple.”

The four varieties drawn from nature, on the next following pages, were from the greenhouse of Major Alexander H. Davis, of Syracuse, N. Y.

> Ae





i f ; i




THIS variety, represented in HMeie INO, Wein seni of New Granada, was named in compliment to Si large collector of orchids in that province. winter.

gnor Triana, a

It blossoms in

It need hardly be said that this variety is considered on all hands, one of the richest and most splendid of floral beauties. It is not, indeed, superior to the C Mossie, but by many is preferred, because it blooms in winter.

In the finely appointed orchid-house of Mr. Corning, of Albany, there are, at the holiday seasons, hundreds of these Cat- tleya Trianz in full blossom. In presence of this floral magnifi- cence, beholders might imagine that they had gained a glimpse of the true Eden, of « many mansions,”

Where everlasting spring abides And never-withering flowers;

which Elizabeth Stuart Phelps has so ingeniously sought to describe to us, as being just Beyond the Gates.”

We are the sweet flowers, Born of sunny showers,

( Think, when e’er you see us what our beauty saith; ) Utterance, mute and bright, Of some unknown delight,

We fill the air with pleasure, by our simple breath: All who see us love us We befit all places;

Unto sorrow we give smiles, and unto graces, races.


Think of all these treasures, Matchless works and pleasures, Every one a marvel, more than thought can say; Then think in what bright showers We thicken leaf and bowers, And with what heaps of sweetness half stifle wanton May; Think of the mossy forests By the bee-birds haunted And all those Amazonian plains, lone lying as enchanted.

Oh! true things are fables, Fit for sagest tables,

And the flowers are true things yet no fables they; Fables were not more Bright, nor loved of yore

Yet they grew not, like the flowers, by every old path way; Grossest hand can test us— Fools may prize us never

Yet we rise, and rise, and rise— marvels sweet for ever.

Who shall say that flowers Dress not heaven’s own bowers? Who its love, without us, can fancy— or sweet floor? Who shall even dare To say we sprang not there And came not down, that Love might bring one piece of Heaven the more? Oh, pray believe that angels From those blue dominions Brought us in their white laps down, *twixt their golden pinions.

Leicu Hunr.



THIS variety fepresented in Plate No. VI.—is a native of the Province of Choco, in the United St is somewhat rare, though a favorite with flor ble on account of its winter blossoming.

ates of Colombia. It

ists; especially desira-

It is not easy to present in the drawing, the full beauty of this flower, because of its drooping habit and the shutting or closing tendency of its petals. The Chocoensis is of delicious fragrance ;

not showy, perhaps, as the C triane, but justly to be prized for its fine perfume.

Sweets of the wild! that breathe and bloom, On this lone tower, this ivied wall; Lend to the gale a rich perfume, And grace the ruin in its fall; Though doom’d, remote from careless eye, To smile, to flourish, and to die, In solitude sublime: Oh! ever may the spring renew Your balmy scent and glowing hue, To deck the robe of time!

Breathe, fragrance! breathe, enrich the air, Though wasted on its wing unknown! Blow, flow’rets! blow, though vainly fair, Neglected and alone! These flowers that long withstood the blast, These mossy towers are mouldering fast, While Flora’s children stay To mantle o’er the lonely pile, To gild destruction with a smile, And beautify decay!



Sweets of the wild! uncultured blowing, Neglected in luxuriance glowing; From the dark ruins frowning near, Your charms in brighter tints appear, And richer blush assume; You smile with softer beauty crown’d, Whilst all is desolate around, Like sunshine on a tomb!

Thou hear’st the zephyrs murmuring, dying; Thou hear’st the foliage waving, sighing, But ne’er again shall harp or song, These dark deserted courts along,

Disturb thy calm repose: The harp is broke, the song is fled, The voice is hush’d, the bard is dead: And never shall thy tones repeat, Or lofty strain, or carol sweet,

With plaintive close!

Nor wilt thou, Spring! refuse to breathe Soft odors on this desert air; Refuse to twine thine earliest wreath, And fringe these towers with garlands fair!

Sweets of the wild, oh! ever bloom Unheeded on this ivied wall!

Lend to the gale a rich perfume, And grace the ruin in its fall!

Thus, round Misfortune’s holy head Would Pity wreaths of honor spread; Like you, thus blooming on this lonely pile, She seeks despair, with heart-reviving smile! Mrs. HEMANS.


Until very recently, orchids were an expensive luxury. The Chocoensis was more costly than many other species; for this, with most others, our countrymen were obliged to import directly from English florists. The demand has now so increased, that American cultivators receive their plants in quantities direct from Brazil, Mexico, etc.

At public auction sales in England, not long ago, a very choice specimen of C. 7viane sold for two hundred and fifty guineas, 7 ¢@, nearly eleven hundred dollars. An original importation of the Atrides brought two hundred and thirty-five guineas. Some two or three years since, a choice Cypripedium, represented on these pages, was sold in this country for one hundred guineas. Recently, at auction sales in London, the highest price given for orchids was twenty-six guineas for an Odontoglossum. A fine Lelia brought seventy dollars; a Phalen- opsis Stuartiana (a new variety, a drawing of which is found on these pages), brought thirty dollars. Now, very good plants of many different species can be had of agents in this country, at from three to five dollars apiece. And purchasers will be wise to pay a dollar or two more for good specimens, than purchase smaller plants, for whose blossoming they must wait long, at less prices than those last named, because they are called cheap.

Travellers in different parts of the Orient had long known that there were many orchidacez of remarkably brilliant colors, singularly curious form, and of fine fragrance; but for many years they were only known to the horticultural world by preserved specimens, pressed out of shape, and withered. At length a few living plants were brought to England, but their proper treatment

was not understood; they were kept alive for a season, but ere


long perished. In 1800, there is said to have been only a dozen poorly grown orchids in the greenhouses at Kew; and during the next twenty years, probably the addition of some fifty varieties comprised all that were possessed or known, in England at least.

From the year 1820 may be dated the real and gradually rapid progress of orchid culture. It was at this time that Wil- liam Cattley, Esq., of Hertfordshire —(to whom has worthily been dedicated the noble species bearing his name, Cattleya), by a thorough system of experimenting, discovered the true methods of cultivation. His success being made known, many followed, and amateurs began to stock their greenhouses with these new trea- sures. Orchid florists multiplied in the different states of Europe, and collectors were sent, at great cost, to the East and West Indies for new and rare species.

Knowledge of their cultivation and widely differing treatment is now so fully gained, that (as we are instructed by Mr. Rand), “the same species are found to grow equally well under very different modes of culture.” Thus it is concluded that many or- chid plants gradually, if not easily, adapt themselves to various conditions and treatment, and are not as capricious as was formerly


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Tus choice specimen, Tepresented in Plate No. VII.,— is a native of La Guayra, South America, and received its name in honor of Mr. Thomas Moss, an early cultivator of Liverpool, England.

Its blossom of exquisite coloring and finish, and the general appearance of the plant, resemble closely the C. ¢viana, only the Mossiz blooms in summer.

Great care and delicacy of treatment are essential in the culti- vation of the Cattleyas,—as indeed all this is needful in most other varieties and species. Heat, ventilation, and moisture are three chief factors always. Not great heat, for experience has shown that many varieties do better in a lower temperature. Es- pecially during a full season of rest, which Orchids must enjoy after blossoming, they should be given a somewhat cooler atmos- phere.

An orchid-house, in which plants are growing, should smell sweet as a flowery meadow does during a sudden burst of sunshine after a summer shower. No dust, or cobwebs, or dry rubbish which could breed lice or vermin, must be permitted. One gardener said to us, “these varieties require as much care as a large family of children, and in bestowing such attention on the plants, we come to love them.”

One thing should be emphasized for its importance, namely, the absolute necessity of cleanliness in order to raise flourishing plants. Frequent but careful washings with water are essential ;


for, while all varieties require ablution for their leaves and stalks, blossoms, especially of the Cattleyas, if wet with but few drops of water, quickly become brown and decay. In large orchid- houses, men are constantly employed in washing these pets, even using soap at times.

Aye, “using soap.” We can but be reminded, in this connec- tion, of the old proverb,—that though “godliness is first in im- portance, cleanliness is the next.” And it is noteworthy how very many of the moral inculcations addressed to men, find strikingly analogous duties required even in the vegetable kingdom.

Those who have become familiar with greenhouse scenes will see an appropriateness with preceding notes, we think, and enjoy the descriptive poem annexed:

Who loves a garden, loves a greenhouse too. Unconscious of a less propitious clime,

There blooms exotic beauty, warm and snug, While the winds whistle and the snows descend, The spiry myrtle with unwith’ring leaf

Shines there, and flourishes. The golden boast Of Portugal and Western India there;

The ruddier orange, and the paler lime

Peep through their polish’d foliage at the storm, And seem to smile at what they need not fear. The amomum there with intermingling flowers And cherries hangs her twigs. Geranium boasts Her crimson honors; and the spangled beau, Ficoides, glitters bright the winter long.

All plants of every leaf, that can endure

The winter’s frown, if screen’d from his shrewd bite, Live there, and prosper. Those Ausonia claims, Levantine regions these; the Azores send

Their jessamine; her jessamine remote


Caffraria; foreigners from many lands, They form one social shade, as if conven’d By magic summons