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EX LIBRIS William HealeyDall

Division of Mollusks Sectional Libi-y^'

III: I

On - ^^C,^

*

THE

VELIGER

A Quarterly published by

CALIFORNIA MALACOZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. Berkeley, California

Volume 9

July I, 1966 to April i, 1967

Volume 9

THE VELIGER

Page III

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A checklist of mollusks for Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico

Helen DuShane & Roy Poorman 413

Additional remarks on the range of Trivia myrae Camp- bell

Jerry Donohue 355

Additions to the molluscan fauna of Clipperton Island

Leo George Hertlein & Edwin C. Allison . . 138 A description of a new species of Dirona from the North- East Pacific

Anne Hurst 9

Age and environment of a marine terrace fauna, San Cle- mente Island, California

Jere H. Lipps 388

A new genus and species of Buccinidae from the Fiji Islands (Mollusca : Gastropoda)

Walter Oliver Cernohorsky 229

A new name for Acmaea mitchelli Lipps

Jere H. Lipps 250

A new name for Mitra sanguinolenta Lamarck, 1811

Jean McCreery Gate 239

A new species of Morum from Brazil, with remarks on related species (Gastropoda : Tonnacea)

William Keith Emerson 289

A new subspecies of Volutoconus hargreavesi (Angas, 1872) from central Western Australia (Gastropoda : Volutidae )

Clifton Stokes Weaver 301

A note on three species of Mitridae (Mollusca : Gastro- poda )

Walter Oliver Cernohorsky 441

A remarkable snail fauna from Coahuila, Mexico

DWIGHT WiLLARD TaYLOR 152

A review of Amoria damonii Gray, 1864 and two new spe- cies names proposed for the homonyms Valuta bullata Swainson, 1829 and Valuta lineata Leach, 1814 (Gastropoda : Volutidae) Clifton S. Weaver & John Eleuthere duPont 382 Aspects of the biology of Donax gouldi and a note on evo- lution in Tellinacea (Bivalvia)

Ross H. Pohlo 330

A study of mitrid radulae and a tentative generic arrange- ment of the family Mitridae ( Mollusca : Gastropoda )

Walter Oliver Cernohorsky 101

A technique for observing ctenidial and mantle currents in limpets (Aspidobranchia)

Peter Vaughn Fankboner 251

Bryozoan-mollusk relationships

Oluwafeyisola Sylvester Adegoke 298

Burial experiments on marine pelecypods from Tomales Bay, California Maurer, Don 376

California Late Miocene records of Swiftopecten Hert- lein, 1935 (Pelecypoda : Pectinidae)

Oluwafeyisola Sylvester Adegoke 337

Confirmation of Haliatis sorenseni Bartsch at Isla Gua- dalupe, Mexico

Emery Perkins Chace 250

Elevation of clams in coral sand

Jack T. Tomlinson 67

Erroneous range extension for Tivela stultorum (Mawe, 1823)

Helen DuShane 86

Filtering experiments on marine pelecypods from Tomales Bay, California

Don Maurer 305

First Canadian report of the sacoglossan Elysia chlorotica Gould

Kaniaulono H. Bailey & J. S. Bleakney 353

Foot autotomy in the gastropod Gena varia (Prosobran- chia : Trochidae)

Lev Fishelson & Guuette Qidron-Lazar 8

Function of labial spines, composition of diet, and size of certain marine gastropods

Robert Treat Paine 17

Gut content and radula illustration of Bathybembix bairdi (Dall, 1889)

Jean A. Merriman 355

Habitat preferences of Littarina sitkana on two shores of differing exposure in Alaska

James Nybakken 347

Intraspecific evolution in Blasicrura interrupt a (Gray) (Gastropoda : Cypraeidae)

Franz Alfred Schilder 292

Length, breadth, and dentition of living cowries

Maria Schilder 369

Linnaeus' type specimens of cowries

Franz Alfred Schilder 91

Material contained in the molluscan type collection of the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History

Gale G. Sphon 244

Mitra prasanguinolenta J. Gate, 1966 relegated to syno- nymy

Jean McCreery Gate 442

Muscular system of Achatina fulica

Krishna Chandra Ghose 25

New distributional records of some Northeastern Pacific Opisthobranchiata (Mollusca : Gastropoda) with de- scriptions of two new species

James R. Lance 69

Nomenclatural units in the gastropod family Mitridae

Eugene Victor Coan 127

Northern and southern range extensions of Aplysia vacca- ria ( Gastropoda : Opisthobranchia ) James R. Lance 412

Page IV

THE VELIGER

Volume 9

Notes on the Mollusca of Prince William Sound, Alaska

Robert R. Talmadge 82

Notes on the Mollusca of Prince William Sound, Alasl^a. Part II.

Robert R. Talmadge 236

Notes on the Opisthobranchia of Baja California, Mexico, with range extensions - II.

Wesley M. Farmer 340

Observations on and distribution of some western and southwestern mollusks

Branson, B. A., M. E. Sisk & C. J. McCoy 145

On Donax and other sandy-beach inhabitants

Phyllis T. Johnson 29

On some taxonomic categories which have been proposed for the classification of large gastropod genera

Michael T. Ghiselin 141

Perplicaria clarki Maxwell Smith, a living fossil

Axel Adolf Olsson & Eugene Bergeron .... 411 Range extension for Tylodina fungina Gabb, 1865 (Gast- ropoda )

Helen DuShane 86

Kange extension of Berghia amakusana (Baba) to the East Pacific

Wesley M. Farmer 251

Responses of two haliotid gastropods (Mollusca), Hali- otis assimilis and Haliotis rujescens, to the forcipulate asteroids ( Echinodermata ) , Pycnopodia heliantho- ides and Pisaster ochraceus

David H. Montgomery 359

Rumina decollata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Achatinidae) dis- covered in Southern California

T. W. Fisher 16

Silicified sand-pipes belonging to Chaceia (?) (Pholadi- dae : Martesiinae) from the Late Miocene of Cali- fornia

Oluwafeyisola Sylvester Adegoke 233

Some abnormal chitons from Washington State

Barry Roth 249

Systematic implications of radular structures of West Coast species of Tegula

Jean A. Merriman 399

The Bursidae, Cymatiidae and Colubrariidae of Fiji (Mol- lusca : Gastropoda)

Walter Oliver Cernohorsky 310

The corrosion-vinyl acetate technique as an aid in the reconstruction of the marine molluscan alimentary system

Peter Vaughn Fankboner 444

The egg masses and veligers of thirty Northeast Pacific opisthobranchs

Anne Hurst 255

The geotactic responses of the land snail Helix aspersa MOller to a reverse incline Thomas H. Irwin 242

The higher taxa of cowries and their allies

Franz Alfred Schilder 31

The holotype of the abyssal dorid nudibranch Bathydoris aoica Marcus & Marcus^ 1962

James R. Lance 410

The range of Trivia myrae Campbell

Jerry Donohue 35

The suppression of autotomy in Linckia multifora (La- marck) by a parasitic gastropod, Stylifer linckiae Sarasin

LaryV Davis 343

The Terebridae of Fiji (Mollusca : Gastropoda) Walter O. Cernohorsky & Albert Jennings 37 The use of radiography for the study and identification of spiral marine shells

Fred Herzberg 247

Type locality designation for Dirona aurantia Hurst, 1966

Anne Hurst 356

West American mollusk types at the British Museum (Natural History), III. Alcyde d'Orbigny's South American collection

A. Myra Keen 1

West American Scissurellidae

James H. McLean 404

West American species of Lucapinella

James H. McLean 349

What's the difference? Published in synonymy - pub- lished as a synonym A. Myra Keen 444

AUTHOR INDEX

Adegoke, Oluwafeyisola Sylvester . . 233, 298, 337

Allison, Edwin Chester (89), (90)

see also: Hertlein, Leo George, &

Bailey, Kaniaulono H., & J. S. Bleakney 353

Bergeron, Eugene see Olsson, Axel Adolf, & Bleakney, J. S. see Bailey, Kaniaulono H., & Branson, Branley A., M. E. Sisk & C. J. McCoy 145

Gate, Jean McCreery 239, 442

Cernohorsky, Walter Oliver . . . 101, 229, 310, 441 Cernohorsky, Walter O., & Albert Jennings . . 37

Chace, Emery Perkins 250

CoAN, Eugene Victor 127

Davis, Lary V 343

Donohue, Jerry 35, 355

DuPoNT, John E., sec Weaver, Clifton S., &

DuShane, Helen 86

DuShane, Helen, & Roy Poorman 413

Emerson, William Keith 289

Fankboner, Peter Vaughn 251, 444

Farmer, Wesley M 251, 340

Fishelson, Lev (88)

Volume 9

THE VELIGER

Page V

FiSHELSON, LeVj & GULIETTE QiDRON-LaZAR 8

Fisher, T W. 16

Ghiselin, Michael T. 141

Ghose, Krishna Chandra 25

Hertlein, Leo George (253), (358)

Hertlein, Leo George, & Edwin Chester Allison 138

Herzberg, Fred 247

Hurst, Anne 9, 255, 356

Irwin, Thomas H 242

Jennings, Albert, see Cernohorsky, Walter O., &

Johnson, Phyllis T. 29

Keen, A. Myra ... 1, (88), (89), (253), (356), 444

Lance, James R 69, 410, 412

Lipps, Jere H 250, (253), 388

Maurer, Don 305, 376

McCoy, C. J., see Branson, B. A., M. E. Sisk &

McLean, James H 349, 404

Merriman, Jean A 355, 399

Montgomery, David H 359

Nybakken, James 347

Olsson, Axel Adolf, & Eugene Bergeron 411

Paine, Robert Treat 17

PoHLo, Ross H 330

Poorman, Roy, see DuShane, Helen, & Qidron-Lazar, Guliette, see Fishelson, Lev, &

Roth, Barry 249

Schilder, Franz Alfred 31, 91, 292

Schilder, Maria 369

Sisk, M. E., see Branson, B. A., , & C. J. McCoy

Sphon, Gale G 244

Stohler, Rudolf (88), (90), (357), (358)

Talmadge, Robert R 82, 236

Taylor, DwiGHT WiLLARD 152,(253)

ToMLiNsoN, Jack T 67

Weaver, Clifton Stokes 301

Weaver, Clifton S., & John Eleuthere duPont 382

THE

VELIGER

A Quarterly published by

CALIFORNIA MALACOZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. Berkeley, California

Volume 9

July i, 1966

Number

CONTENTS

West American Mollusk Types at the British Musexun (Natural History) , III. Alcide d'Orbigny's South American Collection (Plate i)

A. Myra Keen

I

Foot Autotomy in the Gastropod Gena varia (Prosobranchia : Trochidae)

Lev Fishelson & Guliette Qidron-Lazar 8

A Description of a New Species of Dirona from the North-East Pacific (Plate 2; 7 Text figures)

Anne Hurst g

Rumina decollata (Linnaeus^ 1758) (Achatinidae) Discovered in Southern California (i Text figure)

T. W. Fisher 16

Function of Labial Spines, Composition of Diet, and Size of Certain Marine Gastropods (2 Text figures)

Robert T. Paine 17

Muscular System of Achatina fulica (Plate 3)

Krishna Chandra Ghose j^^^t^a^^^^^^"^ . 21^

On Donax and Other Sandy-Beach Inhabitants Phyllis T. Johnson

[Continued on Inside Front Coverp

Distributed free to Members of the California Malacozoological Society Inc. Subscriptions (by Volume only) payable in advance to Calif. Malacozoological Soc, Inc. Volume 9: $12.- Domestic; $12.60 in the Americas; $12.80 all other Foreign Countries.

Price single copy, this issue, $5.80, Postage extra. Send subscriptions to Mrs. Jean M. Gate, Manager, 127 19 San Vicente Boulevard, Los Angeles, California goo4.g. Address all other correspondence to Dr. R. ^iTOHuer, Editor, Department of Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.

Second Class Postage paid at Berkeley, California

CONTENTS Continued

The Higher Taxa of Cowries and their Allies Franz Alfred Schilder . .

31

The Range of Trivia myrae Campbell (i Map) Jerry Donohue

35

The Terebridae of Fiji (MoUusca : Gastropoda) (Plates 4 - 7; 13 Text figures)

Walter Oliver Cernohorsky & Albert Jennings 37

Elevation of Clams in Coral Sand

Jack T. Tomlinson

New Distributional Records of some Northeastern Pacific Opisthobranchiata

(Mollusca : Gastropoda) with Descriptions of Two New Species (12 Text figs.) James R. Lance

Notes on the Mollusca of Prince William Sound, Alaska

Robert R. Talmadge g2

NOTES & NEWS gg

Range Extension for Jylodina fungina Gabb, 1865 Helen DuShane Erroneous Range Extension of Tivela stultorum (Mawe, 1823)

Helen DuShane Gift from San Diego Shell Club

BOOKS, PERIODICALS & PAMPHLETS 88

Note: The various taxa above species are indicated by the use of different type styles as shown by the following examples:

ORDER, Suborder, DIVISION, Subdivision, SECTION,

SuPERFAMiLY, Family, Subfamily, Gems^ {Subgenus),

New Taxa

Vol. 9; No. 1

THE VEUCER

Page 1

West American Mollusk Types at the British Museum (Natural History)

III. Alcide d'Orbigny's South American Collection

BY

A. MYRA KEEN

Department of Geology, Stanford University, California

(Plate i)

ALcroE Dessalines d'Orbigny was bom September 6th, 1802, at Coueron, France, near Nantes, in the north- western part of the country and thus not far from the seacoast of the Bay of Biscay. He was son of a physician of broad interests who had begun the study of marine life, especially Foraminifera. When the father's eyesight began to fail, Alcide assisted him at the microscope and thus early developed his talents for observation and drawing. He continued an interest in natural history during school training at La Rochelle. By the time he was 23, Alcide had constructed a set of models of Fora- minifera (carved from wood and reproduced in plaster) and had published a classification of the group in tabular form. Soon after this he was appointed as travelling natu- ralist to the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. His first assignment was a zoological expedition to South America. He left France in 1826 and did not return until 1833, by which time he had explored parts of Brazil, Uruguay, Patagonia, Chile, Bolivia, and Peru. On the West Coast, in 1833, he collected at Callao and Islay, Peru, and at Arica, Cobija (then in Bolivia), and Val- paraiso, Chile.

Back in France he devoted himself to the preparation of several large reports on his work in ethnology and zoology - not only on the "Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale . . " but also on the mollusks of the West Indies and invertebrates from the Canary Islands. Com- pleting these large works on the Recent faunas, he turned to work in paleontology for the rest of his life and pub- lished a number of monumental reports in this field also. When a Chair in Paleontology was established at the Museum in 1853, he was elected as its first incumbent. Busy with this new responsibility, he shut himself off

from the rest of the world until his work was terminated by death in June 1857, a few months before he would have been 55 years old. The quality and the quantity of his published work give ample evidence of the great energy and ability that he had.

In the early 1850's Orbigny transferred his moUuscan collections to the British Museum (Natural History), and an inventory of the South American portion was published by Gray, the curator, in 1855. Because of its historic significance, the collection has been kept intact and has been left as Orbigny mounted and labelled it, the shells being glued to heavy cardboard blocks. In a neat hand, Orbigny had lettered the names and the locality informa- tion. He also had indicated the collector if other than him- self (all lots from north of Callao had been taken by a Monsieur Fontaine ) . The collection has not been arranged in any systematic order, although it is separated into three geographic suites - West American, Cuban, and Canary Island. There has been some disassociation of specimens and cards, what with the transfer of the materi- al from cabinet to cabinet during the 110 years since it was sent to London. I found little difficulty in reassemb- ling the lots when I had occasion to examine this material. In 1964, when I was at the Museum for some months, I put aside what seemed to be all the lots that Orbigny had credited to himself as author and made record photo- graphs of most of them. Reviewing my work later, at home, I realized that I had stopped a little short of completeness. At the Museum again in 1965 for a few days, I searched out several lots I had overlooked, but a crowded schedule prevented the page-by-page review of Orbigny's published work and direct comparison of this with the collection itself. Thus, I now find that there

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were a few items for which I did not search. However, I did succeed in spotting most of the types.

Among the material in the so-called Cuban collection (actually from several islands of the West Indies), I noted and photographed a few forms that have been identified by authors as also occurring on the West Coast of the Americas - Vermetus corrodens, Trigonulina ornata (now Verticordia) , Perna chemnitziana (now Isogno- mon), and Crenella divaricata. These will not be re- viewed in the present paper, for they were not described as "South American."

The volume on Mollusca published by Orbigny in the "Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale . . " comprised some 758 pages of text and 85 colored plates. The work was issued irregularly over a period of years, completed in 1847. Collation of the pages and plates has been difficult for bibliographers. Libraries of that day did not always mark the dates of receipt of separate parts or keep the original wrappers. Early references to the work therefore were apt to be incomplete or inaccurate. Charles Sherbom, compiler of that greatest of nomenclators, the "Index Animalium," in 1902 - 1933, expressed dissatis- faction with the then-available evidence as to dates. Later, however, he had access to a set of the work in original wrappers and published a tabular collation (Sherborn & Griffin, 1934). For the present list I have adopted the revised dates. Under "References" I have quoted the evidence gi\'en by Sherborn & Griffin but have re- arranged it into chronologic order. Dates on three plates still are lacking, but this affects only one name, which therefore will have to be dated as 1847 under Article 22 (c) of the International Code. Many of the date changes in the present list are caused by the validation of names in the plate explanations, which often were issued in advance of the text.

The format adopted here is to cite the species names in their original generic combination but in a modern sys- tematic sequence rather than that followed by Orbigny. His name as describer is to be understood and is not repeated for each entry. An asterisk preceding the species name indicates a change in date from that in most lists. Then, in order, follow: date; page, plate, and figure reference; type locality; British Museum registry number (note that most of these were assigned December 4th, 1854) ; remarks, including notes on nomenclature; mod- em allocation, if different from Orbigny's; references to a figure, either in a more modem work or in this paper. Because the "Voyage . . " is a rare work and not avail- able in most libraries, I have cited reproductions of his figures by later authors (notably Tryon and Pilsbry in the Manual of Conchology) and discussions in more

accessible modern works. Although I photographed most of the types, I am including in my plate mostly the forms that have not been well understood by authors.

A few minor gastropod groups (pteropods, heteropods, and nudibranchs) have been omitted in this canvass, and it does not cover Cephalopoda. Non-marine forms of course are excluded.

A comment as to the spelling of D'Orbigny's name is in order, for authors have variously recorded it. Dall adopted the spelling Orbigny in 1909, and I have followed this precedent for two reasons: in indexes, according to the Style Manual for Biological Journals, the entry would be "Orbigny, Alcide d' " ; and, for formation of scientific names from personal names, the International Code re- commends dropping of the nobiliary particle de, so that a name dedicated to him should be spelled orbignyi. It is, of course, correct to use it in connectic«i with the Christian name: "Alcide d'Orbigny," and, in writing of him as a person, when not citing the Christian name, one pre- sumably would use the spelling "D'Orbigny." As species authority, he is Orbigny. One must admit, though, that he, on his labels and in his book, used the abbreviation "d'O." or "d'Orb.".

GASTROPODA

Patellacea

* Patella araucana. 1839: p. 482, pi. 65, figs. 4-6. Val- paraiso, Chile. B. M. no. 54.12.4.244, 11 specimens. Refigured by Pilsbry, 1891, Man. Conch., v. 13, p. 35, pi. 16, figs. 21, 22. Acmaea.

Patella ceciliana. 1841 : p. 482, pi. 81, figs. 4-6. Falkland Islands. Range to Antofagasta and Valparaiso, Chile, fide Dall, 1909. Not searched. Acmaea.

Patella parasitica. 1841 : p. 481, pi. 81, figs. 1-3. Valpa- raiso and Arica, Chile. B. M. no. 54.12.4.300, 302, 15 specimens. Scurria.

Patella pretrei. 1841: p. 481, pi. 78, figs. 15-17. Payta, Peru ; Valparaiso and Arica, Chile. Not searched. Re- figured, Pilsbry, op. cit., p. 33, pi. 34, figs. 9, 10. = Acmaea viridula (Lamarck, 1819).

Patella maxima. 1841 : p. 482 (no fig.). Payta, Pern. B. M. no. 54.12.4.437, 1 specimen. =P. mexicana Brod- ERip & Sowerby, 1829.

"Acmaea scutum Esch." of Orbigny, 1839 (not of Rathke ex EscHSCHOLTZ, MS, 1833) : p. 479, pi. 64, figs. 8 to 10. Cobija and Arica, Chile. B. M. no. 54.12.4.304, 12 specimens. Refigured, Pilsbry, 1891, op. cit., p. 32, pi. 4, figs. 77, 79. The identity of the species

Vol. 9; No. 1

THE VELIGER

Page 3

remains unclear. D'Orbigny had first labelled this Lottia punctata Gray, a preoccupied name, then changed to Acmaea scutum Esch. A new name has been provided for his misidentification : Acmaea or- bignyi Dall, 1909.

FiSSURELLACEA

Fissurella fontainiana. 1841: p. 477, pi. 78, figs. 12-14. Islay, Peru, 18 fms. B. M. no. 54.12.4.613. Very close to Diodora alta (C. B. Adams, 1852) and to Fissur- ella aspera Sowerby, 1835 [non Rathke ex Esch- SCHOLTZ MS, 1833) =Fissuridea asperior Dall, 1909, the former from Panama, the latter from Peru. Diodora. (Plate 1, Figure 13).

Trochacea

Trochus araucanus. 1840: p. 410, pi. 55, figs. 5-8. Valpa- raiso, Chile. Not searched. = Monodonta nigerrima (Gmeun, 1791), fide Pilsbry, 1889, Man. Conch., V. 11, p. 97.

Trochus luctuosus. 1840: p. 409, pi. 76, figs. 16-19. Val- paraiso, Chile, 12 fms. B. M. no. 54.12.4.390, 14 specimens. Tegula (Chlorostoma).

Trochus microstomus. 1840: p. 410, pi. 76, figs. 20, 21. Valparaiso, Chile. Not searched. = Chlorostoma trident atus (Potiez & Michaud, 1838),^rfg Pilsbry, 1889, op. cit., p. 175.

Littorina umbilicata. 1840: p. 394, pi. 76, figs. 1-3. Arica and Cobija, Chile. Not searched. Refigured, Strong, 1928, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 17, no. 6, p. 200, pi. 10, figs. 16, 17, as a phasianellid. Tricolia.

Neritacea

Neritina fontaineana. 1840: p. 406, pi. 76, figs. 14, 15. Guayaquil, Ecuador. B. M. no. 54.12.4.382, 8 speci- mens. Refigured, Tryon, 1888, Man. Conch., vol. 10, p. 76, pi. 23, figs. 92, 93, as A^. latissima Broderip, 1833, var. A later synonym is: A^. guayaquilensis "Orb." of Sow^erby, 1849.

LiTTORINACEA

Littorina araucana. 1840: p. 393, pi. 53, figs. 8-10. Chile. Not searched. Refigured, Tryon, 1887, op. cit., vol. 9, p. 250, pi. 48, figs. 95, 96.

TURRITELLACEA

Turritella broderipiana. 1840: p. 388 (no fig.). Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.356, 1 specimen. Type of

subgenus Broderiptella Olsson, 1964. (Plate 1, Figure 21).

Cerithiacea

* Cerithium montagnei. 1839: p. 443, pi. 63, figs. 3, 4.

Guayaquil, Ecuador, in brackish water. B. M. no. 54.12.4.504, 4 specimens. Cerithidea.

Cerithium peruvianum. 1841: p. 443, pi. 77, figs. 9, 10. Payta, Peru; Arica, Chile. B. M. no. 54.12.4.511, 6 specimens. Refigured, Tryon, 1887, op. cit. p. 153, pi. 30, fig. 2 1 . Bittium. ( Plate 1 , Figures 1 2 a-b ) .

Rissoina inca. 1840: p. 395, pi. 53, figs. 11-16. Arica and Cobija, Chile. "Cobija, Bolivia," on original la- bel. B. M. no. 54.12.4.367, 13 specimens. Tyf>e of genus Rissoina. (Plate 1, Figures 6a-c).

Naticacea

Natica cora. 1840: p. 401, pi. 76, figs. 10, 11. Callao, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.375, 7 specimens. Poli- nices. (Plate 1, Figures lOa-c).

HiPPONICACEA

Pileopsis ungaricoides. 1841 : p. 457, pi. 78, fig. 4. Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.554, 1 broken specimen. Refigured, Tryon, 1886, op. cit., vol. 8, p. 131, pi. 40, figs. 82, 83. Capulus. (Plate 1, Figures 14 a-b) .

CaLYPTRAE ACEA

* Calyptraea intermedia. 1839: p. 463, pi. 59, figs. 4-6.

Islay, Peru, 20 fms. B. M. no. 54.12.4.566, 3 speci- mens. Refigured, Tryon, 1886, op. cit., vol. 8, p. 122, pi. 35, figs. 89, 90. (Plate 1, Figures 11 a-b).

Cymatiacea

Ranella kingii. 1841: p. 451 [no fig.). Mocha, Chile, 10 fms. B. M. no. 54.12.4.533, 3 specimens. Pro Triton ranelliformis King & Broderip, 1832, which also was renamed Ranella vexillum Sowerby, Oct. 1841. Argobuccinum.

MURICACEA

Murex monoceros. 1841: p. 454, pi. 78, figs. 1, 2 [non Sowerby, 1841]. Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4. 547, 2 specimens. Refigured and renamed, Tryon, 1880, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 126, pi. 35, figs. 384, 385, as Murex fontainei Tryon, 1880. Ceratostoma. Very close to C. lugubris (Broderip, 1833), which was erroneously placed in synonymy in "Sea Shells of Tropical West America" as an Ocenebra. The

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Vol. 9; No. 1

varices are heavier than in C. lugubris, of which it may prove to be a variant. There is a small tooth on the outer lip. (Plate 1, Figures 18a-b). Purpura delessertiana. 1841 : p. 439, pi. 77, fig. 7. Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.493. Refigured, Tryon, 1880, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 169, pi. 50, fig. 95. Thais ( Stramonita ). ( Plate 1 , Figure 15).

BUCCINACEA

Columbella sordida. 1841 : p. 430, pi. 77, figs. 2-4. Cal- lao, Peru: Arica, Chile. B. M. no. 54.12.4.450, more than 12 specimens. Refigured, Tryon, 1883, op. cit., vol. 5, p. 117, pi. 47, fig. 42. =Mitrella unicolor (Sow^erby, 1832).

*Fusus fontainei. 1839: p. 447, pi. 63, fig. 2. Callao, Peru; Cobija, Chile. B. M. no. 54.12.4.517, 5 speci- mens. Refigured, Tryon, 1881. op. cit., vol. 3, p. 137, pi. 56, fig. 379. Synonym: Fusus alternatus Philippi, 1847, usually cited as the prior or preferred name. Austrofusus.

* Fusus purpuroides. 1839: p. 448, pi. 65, fig. 1. Callao and Payta, Peru, 6 fms. B. M. no. 54.12.4.501, 5 specimens. Refigured, Tryon, 1881, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 149, pi. 42, fig. 217. = Cantharus (Solenosteira) fusiformis (Blainville, 1832).

Murex inca. 1841: p. 455, pi. 78, fig. 3. Callao, Peru, 6 fms. B. M. no. 54.12.4.548, 5 specimens. Re- figured, Tryon, 1881, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 164, pi. 74, fig. 301. Cantharus, s. I. (Plate 1, Figures 9 a-b) .

Nassa fontainei. 1841: p. 433, pi. 77, figs. 5, 6. Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.456-457, 2 specimens. Re- figured, but poorly, Tryon, 1882, op. cit., vol. 4, p. 32, pi. 10, fig. 102, as a synonym of A^. exilis, from which the lectotype (here selected) differs by being propor- tionately wider, the axial ribs with beads at the suture. Nassarius. No. 456 is Orbigny's figured specimen and is here selected as lectotype; no. 457, although mounted and labelled by Orbigny as this species, seems to be closer to A^. versicolor (C. B. Adams, 1852). (Plate 1, Figure 3).

VOLUTACEA .

Mitra inca. 1841: p. 427, pi. 77, fig. 1. Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.434, 1 specimen. Refigured, Tryon, 1882, op. cit., vol. 4, pi. 39, fig. 140. Mitra (?Scabricola). (Plate 1, Figure 17).

OPISTHOBRANCHIATA Anaspidea

Bulla peruviana. 1837: p. 211, pi. 19, figs. 4, 5. Peru. Not searched. Refigured, Pilsbry, 1895, op. cit., vol. 15, pi. 43, figs. 3-5. Haminoea.

Tornatella venusta. 1840: p. 399, pi. 56, figs. 4-6. Payta, Peru. Not searched. Refigured, Pilsbry, 1893, op. cit., vol. 15, p. 164, pi. 18, figs. 100, 101. Acteon (Rictaxis), near A. casta (Hinds, 1844) but with a lower spire and more coloration.

Explanation of Plate 1

All specimens in the Type Collection, Mollusca Section, British Museum (Natural History)

Figure i : Lima pacifica Orbicny. Holotype of Lima arcuata

SOWERBY. X 0.8.

Figure 2: Mytilus "falcatus" Orbigny = M. strigatus Hanley.

Syntype, from Brazil. x 0.5. Figure 3: Nassa fontainei Orbigny. Lectotype. x 1.5. Figure 4, a-c: Auricula globulus ORBKny. 3 syntypes. x 2. Figure 5, a-b : Mytilus soleniformis Orbigny. 2 syntypes. x 0.8. Figure 6, a-c: Rissoina inca Orbigny. 3 syntypes. x 1.7. Figure 7, a-b: Pectunculus "minor" Orbigny = Glycymeris chem-

nitzii Dall. Exterior and interior of holotype. x 0.8. Figure 8, a-b: Venus paytensis Orbigny. Exterior and interior

of 2 syntypes of Cytherea affinis Broderip. x 0.7. Figure 9, a-b: Murex inca Orbigny. Back and apertural views,

2 syntypes. x i. Figure 10, a-c: Natica cora Orbigny. 3 syntypes, back and

apertural views. x i. Figure 11, a-b: Calyptraea intermedia Orbigny. Interiors of

2 syntypes. x 2. (Actually, specimens are circular in

outline but appear oblique because of the necessary camera angle) .

Figure 12, a-b: Cerithium peruvianum Orbigny. 2 syntypes X 5 5-

Figure 13: Fissurella fontainiana Orbigny. Holotype. x 1.3. Figure 14, a-b: Pileolus ungaricoides Orbigny. a) above, interior,

X 1.3; b) below, exterior, X 2.2. Figure 15: Purpura delessertiana Orbigny. Syntype. x 1. Figure 16, a-b: Ostrea aequatorialis Orbigny. 2 syntypes.

a) left, exterior, b) right, interior x 0.5. Figure 17: Mitra inca Orbigny. Holotype. x 2. Figure 18, a-b: Murex "monoceros" Orbigny = M. fontainei

Tryon. a) back, b) apertural views. 2 syntypes. x i.i. Figure 19, a-d: Anomia peruviana Orbigny. Above, 2 broken

syntypes showing t!ie perforate valve; below, 2 other syntypes

showing exterior sculpture. x 0.8. Figure 20, a-c: Cyclas fontainei Orbigny. Interior views of one

syntype, exterior of another. x 0.5. Figure 2 1 : Turritella broderipiana Orbigny. Holotype. x 0.4.

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[Keen] Plate i

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Pyramid ELL ACE A

Chemnitzia cora. 1840: p. 398, pi. 76, figs. 7-9. Payta, Peru. Not searched. Turbonilla.

Cephalaspidea

*Aplysia inca. 1836: p. 207, pi. 19, figs. 1-3. CaUao, Peru. Not searched. Refigured, Pilsbry, 1895, op. cit., vol. 16, pi. 19, figs. 29-31.

* Aplysia nigra. 1836: p. 209, pi. 18, figs. 1, 2. Callao,

Peru. Not searched. Refigured, Pilsbry, loc. cit., pi. 22, figs. 10, 11.

* Aplysia rangiana. 1835: p. 210, pi. 17, figs. 11-13.

Payta, Peru. Not searched. Refigured, Pilsbry, loc. cit., pi. 19, figs. 34-36.

PULMONATA

Auricula acuta. 1835: (Magasin de Zool., vol. 5, p. 23) ; figured, 1837, p. 327, pi. 42, figs. 4, 5. Guayaquil, Ecuador. Not searched. Marinula.

Auricula globulus. 1835 (Magasin de Zool., p. 22, ex Ferussac, MS?) ; cited, 1837, p. 327, as "d'Orb.", but not figured. Guayaquil, Ecuador. B. M. no. 54.12.4.243, 3 specimens. Original label credits the name to Ferussac; one syntype figured by Reeve, 1878, Conchologia Iconica, vol. 20, Auricula, pi. 6, fig. 43. Detracia. (Plate 1, Figures 4 a-c) .

* Auricula reflexilabris. 1837: p. 326, pi. 42, figs. 1-3.

Lima and Callao, Peru. Not searched. Tralia. Auricula stagnalis. 1835 (Magasin de Zool., p. 23); figured, 1837: p. 325, pi. 42, figs. 7, 8. Guayaquil, Ecuador. B. M. no. 54.12.4.240, 2 specimens. Ellobium.

AMPHINEURA

Chiton bicostatus. 1841: p. 486, pi. 81, figs. 7-9. Peru; Arica, Chile. Not searched. = C. pulchellus Gray, 1828. Callistochiton, fide Dall, 1909.

* Chiton inca. 1839: p. 486, pi. 65, figs. 20-24. Islay,

Peru. Refigured, Pilsbry, 1894, op. cit., vol. 14, pi. 27, figs. 52-54, as Ischnochiton.

PELEGYPODA

Nuculacea

* Leda sowerbyana. 1845: p. 544 (no fig.). Xipixapi,

Ecuador. New name for Nucula lanceolata "La- marck, 1819" of G. SowERBY, 1833 [non J. Sower- BY, 1817]. Probable holotype at B. M., registry

number not yet assigned. Adrana. (Species fig- ured and discussed by Olsson, 1961, p. 69, pi. 3, fig. 3).

*Leda ornata. 1845: p. 546, pi. 82, figs. 4-6. Payta, Peru. Not searched. Nuculana (Saccella). (Sp>e- cies discussed by Olsson, 1961, op. cit., p. 60, pi. 2, fig. 3).

Arcacea

Area aequatorialis. 1846: p. 636 (no fig.) . Santa Elena, Ecuador. New name for Area ovata Reeve, 1844 [non Gmelin, 1791]. Reeve's type searched but not yet located at B. M.; cited as from Cuming Collec- tion by Reeve. Anadara (Cunearca). (Species figured and discussed by Olsson, 1961, op. cit., p. 95, pi. 9, figs. 4, 5.

Area reeveana. 1846: p. 635 (no fig.). Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.786, 2 specimens. New name for "Area helblingii Bruguiere" of Reeve, 1844 [not of Bruguiere, 1789]. Barbatia (Cucullaearea) .

Area sowerbyi. 1846: p. 637 (no fig.). Atacama, Co- lombia, 7 fms. Holotype searched at B. M., 1964, but not found. Unneeded innovation for Area biangulata Sowerby, 1833, non A. biangula Lamarck, 1805. Species figured and discussed by Olsson, 1961, op. cit., p. 98, pi. 8, fig. 5, as Anadara (Caloosarca) , a new subgenus by Olsson, 1961.

Pectunculus minor. 1846: p. 628 (no fig.). Isla Plata, Ecuador. Homonym [non Lea, 1833); renamed Glycymeris chemnitzii Dall, 1909. Based on a figure in Reeve, Conchologia Iconica, vol. 1, Pectunculus pi. 6, fig. 28. Holotype, B. M. registry number not yet assigned. Considered a synonym of Tucetona strigilata (Sowerby, 1835) by Olsson, 1961, p. 108, pi. 11, fig. 3. Glycymeris. (Plate 1, Figures 7 a-b).

Mytilace A

Mytilus americanus. 1846: p. 648 (no fig.). Callao, Peru. Not searched. Probably a synonym of M. (Aulaeomya) ater Mouna, 1782.

* Mytilus falcatus. 1846: pi. 84, figs. 38, 39 (as M. char- ruanus). [Non Goldfuss, 1837]. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Maldonado, Uruguay. B. M. nos. 54.12.4. 812-813, 6 or more specimens, labelled as M. falcatus. Allocated to Mytella by Soot-Ryen, 1955, p.50, and reported as ranging from Bahia de Petitlan, Mexico to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. Olsson, 1961, however (p. 113-114) cites only Mytilus arci- formis (Dall, 1909) and rejects Mytella "falcata" by implication from the West Coast fauna, citing the range of Mytilus arciformis (which he does not con- sider to be a Mytella) as El Salvador to Guayaquil,

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Vol. 9; No. 1

Ecuador. The identity of material north of El Sal- vador thus remains in doubt. Soot-Ryen had syn- onymized M. arciformis with Mytella "falcata." The name M.charruana (Orbigny, 1847), printedinthe plate explanation, is available as replacement for the homonymous M. "falcata." However, there seems to be an earlier synonym, as Dr. L. G. Hertlein has pointed out to me - Mytilus strigatus Hanley, 1843 (Illustrated and descriptive catalogue of bivalve shells, pp. 251, 388, pi. 24, fig. 34), which was described without locality from a Hinds MS and figured in 1847 with the statement that Orbigny had described the species as M. falcatus. Thus, it would seem that if West Coast representatives of this form do occur, they should take the name Mytella strigata (Hanley, 1843). (Plate 1, Figure 2).

* Mytilus c/jenuanuj, spelling error for M. chenui Recluz,

1842. 1842: p. 649, pi. 85, figs. 14-16. Brazil. B. M. no. 54.12.4.810, 1 specimen. Gray's list cites the locality as Payta, Peru. The B. M. specimen closely resembles Gregariella denticulata (Dall, 1871 ) . Thus, Orbigny's material may not be correctly identified. Gregariella.

* Mytilus soleniformis. 1842: p. 649, pi. 85, figs. 17, 18.

Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.811, 2 specimens. Type of genus Adula. Olsson, 1961, p. 132, ex- tends the range north to Panama. (Plate 1, Figures 5a, b).

Lithodomus inca. 1846: p. 651 (no fig.). Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.789, 1 specimen. Holotype figured by Olsson, 1961 : p. 135, pi. 15, fig. 1, as Lithopha- ga (Labis). (Tlie species was considered a synonym of Modiola attenuata Deshayes, 1836 by Soot- Ryen, 1955, p. 99).

Lithodomus peruvianus. 1846: p. 651 (no fig.). Callao, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.788, 3 specimens. One syn- type figured by Olsson, 1961, p. 135, pi. 15, fig. 2 a. Lithophaga (Labis).

Pectinacea

Pecten inca. 1846: p. 663 (no fig.). Santa Elena, Ecuador. New name for Pecten tumidus Sowerby, 1835, non Turton, 1822. =Aequipecten circu- laris (Sowerby, 1835).

Pecten tumbezensis. 1846: p. 663 (no fig.). Tumbez, Peru. New name for Pecten aspersus Sowerby, 1835, non Lamarck, 1819. Type searched at B. M. in 1964 but not found. Species figured and discussed by Olsson, 1961, p. 164, pi. 21, fig. 2. Aequipecten (Pacipecten). [Type of subgenus Pacipecten Ols- son, 1961].

Lima pad flea. 1846: p. 654 (no fig.). Lord Hood's Island, Panama, Guayaquil, Guacomayo (Cuming Collection ) . New rume for Lima arcuata Sowerby, 1843, non Geinttz, 1840 of authors, non Ostrea arcuata Brocchi, 1814, a Lima. Sowerby's probable holotype, B. M., not yet assigned a registry number. Species figured and discussed, Olsson, 1961, p. 170, pi. 17, fig. 1. Lima (Promantellum) . (Plate 1, Figure 1).

Ostreacea

Ostrea aequatorialis. 1846: p. 672 (no fig.). Isla de la Luna, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Holotype, B. M. no. 54. 12.4.823. Probably a synonym of O. columbiensis Hanley, 1846. (Plate 1, figs. 16a-b).

Anomiacea

Anomia peruviana. 1846: p. 673 (no fig.). Payta, Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.824, 4 specimens; syntypes thin and somewhat broken, showing variation in color. Species figured and discussed by Olsson, 1961, p. 177, pi. 24, fig. 2. (Plate 1, Figures 19a-d).

Corbiculacea

*Cyclas fontainei. 1842: p. 569, pi. 83, figs. "16-17" (actually, 14-15). Guayaquil, Ecuador. B. M. no. 54.12.4.750, 2 specimens. Neocyrena. (Plate 1, Figures 20a-c).

Veneracea

* Venus cycloides. 1845: p. 562 (no fig.). Payta, Peru.

New name for Cytherea gigantea PHiLn»pi, 1844, ex Sowerby, MS; not a homonym of Venus gigantea Gmelin, 1791 cited as Cytherea by Lamarck, 1818. Dosinia ponderosa (Gray, 1838).

* Venus cumingii. 1845: p. 563 (no fig.). Xipbcapi,

Ecuador. Type material not searched. Unneeded new name for the supposed homonym Cytherea mod- esta Sowerby, 1835, non Venus modesta Dubois, 1831. Species figured and discussed by Olsson, 1961, p. 280, pi. 46, fig. 4, as Transennella modesta (Sowerby) .

* Venus mariae. 1845: p 563 (no fig.). Isla la Plata,

Ecuador. New name for Venus cypria Sowerby, 1835, non Brocchi, 1814. Holotype, B. M., registry number not yet assigned. Species figured and dis- cussed by Olsson, 1961, p. 296, pi. 49, figs. 2, 8. Chione (Lirophora).

* Venus paytensis. 1845: p. 565 (no fig.). Payta, Peru;

Cuming Collection, Xipixapi, Ecuador. Syntype lot.

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B. M., labelled "West Colombia" (i.e. Ecuador), without assigned registry number. New name for the secondary homonym Cytherea affinis Broderip, 1835, non Venus affinis Gmelin, 1791 (both species now regarded as belonging in Pitar, s. I.). Apparently separable from Pitar concinnus (Sowerby, 1835), as Olsson, 1961, p. 288, has shown, ranging north at least to Panama. Pitar (Lamelliconcha). (Plate 1, Figures 8a-b).

* Venus solangensis. 1845: p. 564 (no fig.). Ecuador.

Type lot in B. M., registry number not yet assigned. New name for the secondary homonym Cytherea radiata Sowerby, 1835, non Trigona radiata Meger- LE VON MuHLFELD, 1811, both specics now regarded as Tivela. However, there is an available prior syn- onym. = Tlvela byronensis (Gray, 1838).

Mactracea

* Donacilla chilensis. 1845: p. 530 (no fig.). Not

searched. =Mesodesma donacium (Lamarck, 1818, fide Olsson, 1961, p. 335.

TeLLIN ACEA

* Donax obesus. 1845 : p. 541, pi. 81, figs. 28-30. Payta,

Peru. B. M. no. 54.12.4.702, 1 specimen. Holotype figured, Olsson, 1961, p. 344, pi. 85, fig. 3.

* Donax paytensis. 1845: p. 541 (no fig.). Payta, Peru.

B. M. no. 54.12.4.703, 4 specimens. Interior of one syntype figured by Olsson, 1961, pi. 85, fig. 4. = Donax dentiferus Hanley, 1843.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation for a grant that covered travel expenses to Britain and to the authorities and staff of the British Museum (Natural History) for the privilege of studying this historic mate- rial. I wish to thank Dr. Leo G. Hertlein and the Califor- nia Academy of Sciences for assistance in reference work and for the opportunity to examine a copy of d'Orbigny's "Voyage . . " in their library.

REFERENCES CITED

Dall, William Healey

1909. Report on a collection of shells from Peru, with a sum- mary of the littoral marine MoUusca of the Peruvian zoological

province. Proc. U. S. N. M. 37 (1704) : 147 - 294; pits. 20 to 28 (24 November 1909)

Gray, John Edward

1855. List of the shells of South America in the collection of the British Museum collected and described by M. Alcide d'Orbigny in the "Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale." London : pp. 1 - 89.

Olsson, Axel Adolf

196L Pananiic-Paclfic Pelecypoda: Mollusks of the Tropical

Eastern Pacific Paleontological Research Institution:

Ithaca, N. Y. Pp. 574, pis. 86 (10 March 1961)

Orbigny, Alcide Dessalines d'

1834-1847. Voyage dans I'Amdrique Meridionale. MoUusques, Paris, vol. 5, pt. 3, xliii + 758 pp., atlas, 85 pits.

1835. Synopsis terrestrium et fluviatilium moUuscorum, in suo per Americam meridionalem itinere. Magasin de Zoologie, Ann. 5 (5), nos. 61-62, pp. 1-32.

PiLSBRY, H. A., in Tryon & Pilsbry, vol. 10 -. See under Tryon.

Sherborn, Charles Davies a Francis J. Griffin

1934. On the dates of publication of the natural history portions of Alcide d'Orbigny's "Voyage Amerique meridionale." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 13 (73) : 130- 134 (Jan. 1934) [In the following tabulation, the data on pages 131-132, on mollusks, are put into chronologic order instead of the order of the separate partsj:

Year Pages Plates

1834 1-48; 73-128 1-2, 9-13, 15-16, 56

1835 49-72; 129-176 3-8, 17-23, 25, 55

1836 177-184 14, 24, 26-28, 30-32, 34-35, 37, 58

fno dates on 33, 36]

1837 185-376 29, 38-52, 57

1838

1839 54, 59-66, 68-69

1840 377-424 53, 67, 70-71

1841 425-488 72-76, 79, 80 [possibly the "79"

is a typographical error for 77, as there is a second 79 in 1847]

1842 83, 85 [no date on 84]

1843

1844

1845 529-600

1846 489-528, 601-728

1847 729-758 [no 78-79, 81-82 exact record of date]

Soot-Ryen, Tron

1955. A report on the family Mytilidae (Pelecypoda). Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, vol. 20, no. 1 (Univ. S. Calif. Press, Los Angeles), 175 pp., 10 pits., 78 text figs.

(10 November 1955)

Tryon, George Washington, Jr.

1879-1913. Manual of Conchology. Philadelphia: ser. 1, vols. 1-17 (continued by H. A. Pilsbry).